Neogenesis… An interesting find for diabetics!

For any type 1 diabetics out there, or anyone interested in some really neat information! I came across this very interesting study that is sure prompting me to have second thoughts!  It addresses the question of whether or not beta cells can regenerate after neonatal time of life… I have only read through this once, but there seems to be some clues that will help put pieces together… Going to go ahead and share this now since it was quite exciting to see that YES the cells CAN regenerate!  Will share more once I dig deeper, in the meantime hope this is helpful 🙂

β-Cell Growth and Regeneration: Replication Is Only Part of the Story
Susan Bonner-Weir, Wan-Chun Li, Limor Ouziel-Yahalom, Lili Guo, Gordon C. Weir, Arun Sharma
Diabetes Oct 2010, 59 (10) 2340-2348; DOI: 10.2337/db10-0084

One point which is very interesting… is the following comment regarding those with gastric bypass surgery… sure makes one consider the role our gut plays in health… And in this particular situation how bypassing impacts blood sugar regulation… What are your thoughts?

“Still more evidence suggesting neogenesis in humans comes from a small group patients who develop hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery (79). They have been found to have increased β-cell mass and impressive numbers of islet cells within the ducts (Fig. 2A), accompanied by high circulating levels GLP-1, which has been shown to stimulate neogenesis in rodents (8). From these accumulating circumstantial data, one can be more confident that neogenesis is an important process in humans”.

Are you thinking what I am thinking?  There must be something in the area which was by-passed that is having an adverse effect on insulin production and the islet cells…. So what roadblock did that bypass remove???? Hmmm… is this another connection to my post “Microbiome“?

Studies providing evidence of in vivo neogenesis

Species Observation References
Rat
    Neonates Islet mass growth from cytokeratin+ cells at periphery of islets; β-cell mass determinants measured, and mathematical modeling Bouwens et al. (21); Wang et al. (89); Finegood et al. (5); Scaglia et al. (6); Bonner-Weir et al. (22)
    Neonatal STZ Appearance of small islet clusters associated with ducts Portha and colleagues (90)
    Duct ligation Appearance of small islet clusters associated with ducts Edstrom (50)
Wang et al. (32)
    Duct ligation + gastrin Appearance of small islet clusters associated with ducts Rooman et al. (52)
    Pancreatectomy (90%) New lobe formation with new islets, enhanced replication too Bonner-Weir and colleagues (31, 38)
    Zucker fatty and Zucker fatty diabetic Increased small islet clusters associated with ducts Pick et al. (91)
    Zucker fatty rats Increased small islets associated with ducts, increased number islets Jetton et al. (44)
    20% glucose infusion (48 h) Increased small islet clusters associated with ducts Jetton et al. (92)
    Exendin 4 Increased hormone+ cells in ducts Xu et al. (8)
  Soybean trypsin inhibitor Increased volume of insulin+ cells in ducts Weaver et al. (33)
Mouse
    Early postnatal Increased number of islets from 1 week to 2 months; lineage tracing of duct-specific promoter birth to 4 weeks Inada et al. (20); Peng et al. (26)
    Ductal ligation Ngn3+ cells in and adjacent to ducts Xu et al. (19)
CAIICreERT lineage tracing Inada et al. (20)
    Alloxan perfusion to part of pancreas Replication in nonperfused part and neogenesis in perfused Waguri et al. (34)
    Alloxan + betacellulin Increased ICC/mm2 pancreas Yamamoto et al. (93)
    Alloxan + adv-betacellulin Significantly increased insulin+ duct cells Tokui et al. (94)
    Alloxan + EGF and gastrin Significantly increased insulin+ duct cells Rooman and Bouwens (95)
    Pancreatectomy (60%) Increased small clusters before β-cell proliferation; FOXM1 necessary for proliferation but for not neogenesis Peshavaria et al. (46); Ackermann Misfeldt et al. (47)
    Retroductal adv-GFP (neonatal) GFP in islets over first 2 weeks Peng et al. (26)
    Metallothionen:TGF-α × Ins:gastrin Insulin+ cells in metaplastic ducts, increased islets Wang et al. (37)
    RIP:interferon-ψ Increased insulin+ clusters in ducts Gu and Sarvetnick (36)
    NeuroD-null mice 10% duct in null mice had “budding” insulin+ cells Huang et al. (96)
    Glucagon:Pax4 Reprogramming of α- to β-cells and replenishment of α from ducts Collombat et al. (30)
Pig
    Obese minipig, after 1 of year age Increased islet numbers but same mean volume of islets Larsen et al. (14)
Human
    Autopsied pancreas, birth to age 20 years After 12 years, most 0.5–1.2% insulin+ duct cells, some none Meier et al. (62)
    Donor pancreas, aged 7–70 years Unchanged low level of neogenesis from 7 to 70 years Reers et al. (65)
    Autopsied, control subjects Obese 1.2% insulin+ duct cells but lean 0.6 ± 0.2% insulin+ duct cells Meier and colleagues (66, 74)
    Autopsied, chronic pancreatitis Significantly increased glucagon+ or insulin+ duct cells Phillips et al. (76)
    Biopsied failed pancreatic transplant Increased insulin+ ducts in transplants with recurrent autoimmunity Martin-Pagola et al. (78)
    Pregnancy Increased β-cells with no change in replication, cell size, or apoptosis frequency; increased insulin+ duct cells and very small islets Butler et al. (15)

Chart is from the above study and can be found at this link.

Would love to hear your thoughts!

Advertisements

12 thoughts on “Neogenesis… An interesting find for diabetics!

  1. Have you read this book, by Giulia Enders, “Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ”? It is very well written and actually fun to read. I think many scientists are now looking at our microbiome with new eyes. I hope it will lead to better health for all of us. Thank you for doing all this research.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I have not! THANK YOU! Will check it out! AND YES!!! I think so too about science and medicine are starting to look at our microbiome from a different perspective!

      My hope is they continue to do so with open eyes!

      Thanks again for sharing that book will add it to my list of reading!

      Liked by 2 people

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s